SALMOPORC SCS

 Description

SAL­MO­PORC SCS

Sal­monel­la chol­er­ae­suis live vaccine for swine, freeze-dried for oral and par­en­ter­al ad­min­is­tra­tion af­ter re­con­sti­tu­tion.

Com­po­si­tion

1 dose (1 ml re­con­sti­tut­ed vaccine) con­tains:

a min­i­mum of 1 x 108 cfu of a ge­net­i­cal­ly sta­bile, dou­ble at­ten­u­at­ed Sal­monel­la chol­er­ae­suis mu­tant Swine serum pro­tein max. 1.0 %

In­di­ca­tion

Ac­tive im­mu­niza­tion of swine against Sal­monel­la chol­er­ae­suis in­fec­tion.

Con­tra-in­di­ca­tions

An­i­mals with sal­monel­lo­sis

Side-ef­fects

A slight in­crease in in­ter­nal body tem­per­a­ture (ap­prox. 1-2 °C) may be seen. In­ter­ac­tions Che­mother­a­peu­tic drugs should be with­drawn for five days be­fore and five days af­ter im­mu­niza­tion with SAL­MO­PORC SCS. If such ther­a­py is ab­so­lute­ly ne­ces­sary then the an­i­mals should be im­mu­nized again af­ter­wards. Con­comi­tant ad­min­is­tra­tion of SAL­MO­PORC SCS and live swine erysipe­las vaccine at dif­fer­ent in­jec­tion sites does not in­hib­it the de­vel­op­ment of im­mu­ni­ty.

In­ter­ac­tions with other vaccines have not been in­vesti­gat­ed.

Ad­min­is­tra­tion and Dosage

The freeze-dried pow­der in a vial is re­con­sti­tut­ed with the dilu­ent (1 ml = 1 dose).

Suck­ling pi­glets:

One sin­gle oral dose when an­i­mals are three weeks old.

Young pigs:

One i.m. or oral dose at the time of trans­fer to fat­ten­ing or rear­ing fa­cil­i­ties.

Young sows:

Two dos­es at 5 and 2 weeks a.p., ei­ther s.c. or i.m.

Boost­er dose dur­ing sub­se­quent preg­nan­cies: 1 dose 2 weeks a.p., ei­ther s.c. or i.m.

Boars:

Re­vac­ci­na­tion with a sin­gle dose at 6-month in­ter­vals, s.c. or i.m.

Oral ad­min­is­tra­tion is made as fol­lows:

Feed­ing and drink­ing machines are turned off and food and wa­ter with drawn for one meal (or half a day)

An­i­mal to feed­er space ra­tio 1:1 on day of ad­min­is­tra­tion

The re­con­sti­tut­ed vaccine is in­tro­duced in­to a 1 % skimmed milk pow­der-drink­ing wa­ter sus­pen­sion (or 10% skimmed milk-drink­ing wa­ter sus­pen­sion) at a con­cen­tra­tion of 1 dose per~ 1,000 ml sus­pen­sion and mixed

The pigs are giv­en this sus­pen­sion to drink - ap­prox 1 litre per an­i­mal

Once the pigs have ful­ly con­sumed the im­mu­niza­tion drink they are once again giv­en ac­cess to feed and wa­ter.

Please note the fol­low­ing

The fluid drunk by the an­i­mals and the con­tain­ers used for di­lu­tion of the vaccine must be free of all traces of dis­in­fec­tants or de­ter­gents.

Orig­i­nal vaccine vials and all ves­sels used in the course of vac­ci­na­tion must be dis­in­fect­ed af­ter use (us­ing dis­in­fec­tants at their usu­al con­cen­tra­tions - ex­cept qu­a­ter­nary am­mo­ni­um bas­es).

Re­con­sti­tut­ed live vaccine must be used within 4 hours.

The at­ten­u­at­ed vaccine strain can be distin­guished from wild strains of Sal­monel­la chol­er­ae­suis us­ing the SAL­MO­PORC SCS di­ag­nos­tic kit.

With­draw­al time

3 weeks

Pre­sen­ta­tion

Vial of 10 dos­es, plus 10 ml dilu­ent

Vial of 50 dos­es, plus 50 ml dilu­ent

Mode of ac­tion

The ex­is­tence of a pro­tec­tive ef­fect was de­mon­s­trat­ed just 3 days af­ter oral im­mu­niza­tion of pi­glets with SAL­MO­PORC SCS (Schöll and Grün­ert 1980). Sta­bile im­mu­ni­ty was achieved ap­prox. 14 days af­ter im­mu­niza­tion and per­sists fol­low­ing se­cond oral or par­en­ter­al im­mu­niza­tion of an­i­mals aged ap­prox. 100 days (weight ca 35 kg live mass) un­til the an­i­mals are ready for slaugh­ter. Cont­in­u­al us­age of SAL­MO­PORC SCS within the frame­work of a com­plex an­ti-sal­monel­la pro­gramme ef­fec­tive­ly elim­i­nates clin­i­cal man­i­fes­ta­tions of sal­monel­lo­sis in swine in the short term and re­duces the in­ci­dence of la­tent sal­monel­lo­sis in the long term. It thus sup­ports ef­forts to erad­i­cate the dis­ease from herds. In­for­ma­tion on the con­comi­tant use of SAL­MO­PORC SCS and live swine erysipe­las vaccine is giv­en in the pa­pers of Ur­ba­neck and Koban (1988) and Dan­n­er (1991).

DIS­EASE

The causal agents of sal­monel­la in­fec­tions in swine are the adapt­ed sero­type Sal­monel­la chol­er­ae­suis and non adapt­ed sero­types, es­pe­cial­ly Sal­monel­la ty­phi­muri­um. They are im­por­tant in swine for two rea­sons, first­ly as the cause of se­vere dis­eas­es and loss­es of an­i­mals, and se­cond­ly be­cause of in­fec­tion of hu­mans due to con­sump­tion of meat con­tain­ing sal­monel­la from an­i­mals which in most cas­es show no symp­toms of in­fec­tion.

SAL­MO­PORC SCS is a live Sal­monel­la chol­er­ae­suis vaccine for pigs of all ages. The vaccine is based on an avir­u­lent im­muno­genic mu­tant S.chol­er­ae­suis strain that dif­fers from wild strain through 2 at­ten­u­a­tion mark­ers. th­ese at­ten­u­a­tion mark­ers are purine aux­otro­phy and the R-form.

TESTS FOR SAFE­TY

The de­gree to which SAL­MO­PORC SCS is tol­er­at­ed was estab­lished with pigs of dif­fer­ent ages. SAL­MO­PORC SCS was well tol­er­at­ed up to a ten­fold dose used for vac­ci­na­tion. The re­sults were checked in a num­ber of field studies and in a re­cent sur­vey of 8 ve­t­eri­nary prac­tices for their rel­e­vance to prac­ti­cal use.

Here too, SAL­MO­PORC SCS ad­min­is­tered by oral, sub­cu­ta­neous, or in­tra­mus­cu­lar­ly route was found to be tol­er­at­ed with­out ex­cep­tion by pi­glets, sows and fat­ten­ing swine housed un­der very dif­fer­ent con­di­tions. Per­sis­tence of the vaccine strain in the body is limit­ed:

The vaccine strain has been shown to per­sist in the body for up to 3 weeks af­ter vac­ci­na­tion.

The or­gan­ism has been de­mon­s­trat­ed in rec­tal swabs for up to 11 days af­ter vac­ci­na­tion.

EF­FI­CA­CY STUDIES

The ef­fi­ca­cy of SAL­MO­PORC SCS was con­firmed in ex­ten­sive lab­o­ra­to­ry and field trials.

SAL­MO­PORC SCS con­fers ad­e­qu­ate im­mu­ni­ty against mas­sive ex­per­i­men­tal chal­lenge and a high lev­el of pro­tec­tion un­der prac­tice con­di­tions.

A pos­i­tive pro­tec­tive ef­fect is seen in pi­glets on­ly three days af­ter oral ad­min­is­tra­tion. This is at­tributable to non-spe­cif­ic re­sis­tance mech­anisms as a re­sult of macrophage ac­tiv­i­ty. An ad­e­qu­ate lev­el of im­mu­ni­ty is seen 14 days af­ter oral or par­en­ter­al ad­min­is­tra­tion. This is main­tained un­til the an­i­mals are ready for slaugh­ter at 110-120 kg pro­vid­ed a boost­er dose is giv­en when an­i­mals weigh 35 kg (aged ca. 3-3.5 months).

IM­MU­NIZA­TION SCHE­D­ULE FOR SAL­MO­PORC SCS

An im­por­tant part of the vac­ci­na­tion reg­i­men is the im­mu­niza­tion of breed­ers. This en­ables ef­fec­tive, pro­tect­tion of young pi­glets via the colostrum. The pas­sive oral im­mu­niza­tion of neo­nates pro­tects them dur­ing their first days of life when their own im­mune sys­tem is not yet able to re­act suf­fi­cient­ly to in­fec­tion. This pas­sive im­mu­ni­ty is ren­dered in ac­tive once the pi­glets be­ing three weeks old get sin­gle oral im­mu­niza­tion.

Herd im­mu­nized with 1 dose of SAL­MO­PORC SCS

Sows: Young sows: 2 x 1 dose 5 and 2 weeks a.p. s.c. (i.m.). Adult sows: 1 dose 2 weeks a.p. s.c. (i.m.)

Pi­glets aged 21 days on: 1 dose oral

Young pigs up­on trans­fer to breed­ing or fat­ten­ing fa­cil­i­ties

Breed­ing boars: 1 dose ev­ery 6 months, s.c. (i.m.)

RE­SULTS OF FELD TRIALS

The fol­low­ing re­sults drawn from field trials are by way of sum­mary:

Use of the live vaccine has en­abled ab­ro­ga­tion of clin­i­cal symp­toms of sal­monel­lo­sis in pigs.

The num­ber of an­i­mals lost in in­fect­ed herds was rad­i­cal­ly re­duced.

The num­ber of sam­ples test­ed pos­i­tive for sal­monel­lo­sis was re­duced to a con­s­tant lev­el or iso­lat­ed in­s­tances, thus al­low­ing the herd to be freed of in­fec­tion.

Ref­er­ences

Ur­ba­necK D. und 1. Koban; Mh. Vet Med. 43 (1988), p. 705-710

Mey­er u. Mi­tar­beit­er Mh. Vet Med, 45 (1990), p. 403-406

Dan­n­er, Tierärztliche Um­schau 11/1991, p. 638-648

Har­tung, M., Dtsch. tierärztl. Wschr. 100 (1993) Heft 7, p. 249-300

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Place of Origin: Germany

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